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What Are The Major Causes Of Hallux Valgus?

Overview
Bunion Pain A bunion is a bone deformity caused by an enlargement of the joint at the base and side of the big toe ( metatarsophalangeal joint ). Bunions form when the toe moves out of place. The enlargement and its protuberance cause friction and pressure as they rub against footwear. The growing enlargement or protuberance then causes more irritation or inflammation. In some cases, the big toe moves toward the second toe and rotates or twists, which is known as Hallux Abducto Valgus. Bunions can also lead to other toe deformities, such as hammertoe.

Causes
Bunions most commonly affect women. Some studies report that bunion symptoms occur nearly 10 times more frequently in women. It has been suggested that tight-fitting shoes, especially high-heel and narrow-toed shoes, might increase the risk for bunion formation. Tight footwear certainly is a factor in precipitating the pain and swelling of bunions. Complaints of bunions are reported to be more prevalent in people who wear shoes than in barefoot people. Other risk factors for the development of bunions include abnormal formation of the bones of the foot at birth (congenital) and arthritic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. In some cases, repetitive stresses to the foot can lead to bunion formation. Bunions are common in ballet dancers.

Symptoms
If you have a bunion, you may have pain or stiffness of your big toe joint, swelling of your big toe joint, difficulty walking, difficulty finding shoes that fit. These symptoms may be caused by conditions other than bunions, but if you have any of these symptoms, see your doctor.

Diagnosis
The doctor considers a bunion as a possible diagnosis when noting the symptoms described above. The anatomy of the foot, including joint and foot function, is assessed during the examination. Radiographs (X-ray films) of the foot can be helpful to determine the integrity of the joints of the foot and to screen for underlying conditions, such as arthritis or gout. X-ray films are an excellent method of calculating the alignment of the toes when taken in a standing position.

Non Surgical Treatment
Bunions are progressive problems, meaning they tend to get worse over time. Sometimes severe-looking bunions don't hurt much, and sometimes relatively modest-looking bunions hurt a great deal. Thus, treatment varies depending upon a patient's symptoms. You can often improve the discomfort of bump pain by a change to more proper shoes. Alternatively, alterations to existing shoes may improve pain associated with bunions. Accommodative padding, shields and various over-the-counter and custom-made orthopaedic appliances can also alleviate bunion pain. Anti-inflammatory medications, steroid injections, physiotherapy, massage, stretching, acupuncture and other conservative treatment options may be recommended by your podiatric physician to calm down an acutely painful bunion. Long term, orthoses (orthotics) can address many of the mechanical causes of a bunion. Thus, while orthoses don't actually correct a bunion deformity, if properly designed and made, they can slow the progression of bunions. They can also be made to redistribute weight away from pain in the ball of the foot, which often accompanies bunion development. Padding, latex moulds and other accommodative devices may also be effective. While they don't correct the misalignment in the bones, they may alleviate pain. Often, though, when conservative measures fail to alleviate pain associated with the bunion, when you start to limit the types of activities you perform, when it's difficult to find comfortable shoes, and when arthritis changes how you walk, surgery may be the best alternative. Bunions Callous

Surgical Treatment
Surgery isn't recommended unless a bunion causes you frequent pain. A bunionectomy, like other types of surgery, is not without risk. Additionally, you may still have pain or you could develop a new bunion in your big toe joint after surgery. Consider trying conservative treatment before having a bunionectomy.If you have an underlying mechanical fault,surgery will only correct the aesthetical nature of your bunion for a short period.So therefore surgery is not recommended.

Prevention
If the diagnosis is made early on, such as in preadolescence, bunion development can be slowed and in some cases arrested with the proper supportive shoe gear and custom functional shoe inserts (orthotics). Avoidance of certain athletic activities with improper shoe fit and toe pressure can prevent the symptoms that occur with bunions.

What Causes Overpronation Of The Foot

Overview

Your feet are the foundation for your entire body. When this foundation is misaligned or functioning poorly the effects can be felt throughout the body, whether in muscle and joint pain or through more serious injuries. Over 75% of the population suffers from overpronation or excessive supination, yet most of us are unaware of our own foot type and how it affects the rest of our body.Pronation

Causes

Abnormal foot biomechanics usually causes over-use type injuries, occurring most frequently in runners. When a neutral foot pronates during walking or running, the lower leg, knee and thigh all rotate internally (medially). When an athlete with an overpronated foot runs, this rotation movement is exaggerated and becomes more marked.

Symptoms

Because pronation is a twisting of the foot, all of the muscles and tendons which run from the leg and ankle into the foot will be twisted. In over-pronation, resulting laxity of the soft tissue structures of the foot and loosened joints cause the bones of the feet shift. When this occurs, the muscles which attach to these bones must also shift, or twist, in order to attach to these bones. The strongest and most important muscles that attach to our foot bones come from our lower leg. So, as these muscles course down the leg and across the ankle, they must twist to maintain their proper attachments in the foot. Injuries due to poor biomechanics and twisting of these muscles due to over-pronation include: shin splints, Achilles Tendonitis, generalized tendonitis, fatigue, muscle aches and pains, cramps, ankle sprains, and loss of muscular efficiency (reducing walking and running speed and endurance). Foot problems due to over-pronation include: bunions, heel spurs, plantar fasciitis, fallen and painful arches, hammer toes, and calluses.

Diagnosis

Your healthcare provider will ask about your symptoms, medical history, and activities and examine your feet. Your provider may watch you walk or run. Check the motion of your feet when they strike the ground. Look at your athletic shoes to see if they show an abnormal pattern of wear.Overpronation

Non Surgical Treatment

Orthotics are medical devices used to provide support to correct a physical abnormality. They can provide arch support when needed to remedy over-pronation, and in this particular cases the orthoses used are usually convenient shoe inserts. These can be taken in and out of shoes, and will be carefully tailored by your podiatrist to the specifics of your foot. It can take some weeks before the effects of the inserts can become truly noticeable, and in many cases your podiatrist will want to review your orthotics within a few weeks to make fine adjustments based on how well they have worked to reduce your pain.

Surgical Treatment

Depending on the severity of your condition, your surgeon may recommend one or more treatment options. Ultimately, however, it's YOUR decision as to which makes the most sense to you. There are many resources available online and elsewhere for you to research the various options and make an informed decision.
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What Is Severs Disease?

Overview

The true name of this complaint is calcaneal apophysitis which just means an inflamation of the growth centre of the bone in your heel as a result of pulling by the Achilles tendon - it is important to realise that it is not a disease but rather a condition that develops in the growing skeleton with activity. It is the most common cause of heel pain in young athletes, and is the second most common condition of its kind in the younger athelete after Osgood-Schlatter's disease. It is often seen at a time of rapid growth during which the muscles and soft tissues become tighter as the bones get longer. It occurs more in boys than girls and is seen most commonly between the ages of 8 and 14 years though it tends to be more prevalent in the younger of this group.

Causes

Sever?s is often present at a time of rapid growth in adolescent athletic children. At this time the muscles and tendons become tighter as the bones become larger. Between 8 - 15 years of age is the usual onset of this condition.

Symptoms

Sever's Disease is most commonly seen in physically active girls and boys from ages 10 to 15 years old. These are the years when the growth plate is still ""open,"" and has not fused into mature bone. Also, these are the years when the growth plate is most vulnerable to overuse injuries, which are usually caused by sports activities. The most common symptoms of this disease include. Heel pain in one or both heels. Usually seen in physically active children, especially at the beginning of a new sports season. The pain is usually experienced at the back of the heel, and includes the following areas. The back of the heel (that area which rubs against the back of the shoe). The sides of the heel. Actually, this is one of the diagnostic tests for Sever's Disease, squeezing the rear portion of the heel from both sides at the same time will produce pain. It is known as the Squeeze Test.

Diagnosis

The doctor may order an x-ray because x-rays can confirm how mature the growth center is and if there are other sources of heel pain, such as a stress fracture or bone cyst. However, x-rays are not necessary to diagnose Sever?s disease, and it is not possible to make the diagnosis based on the x-ray alone.

Non Surgical Treatment

It is important that those with Sever?s Disease are treated by a medical professional to reduce pain and allow children to continue to participate in sporting activities. The Athlete?s Foot recommends a visit to your local medical professional to be diagnosed correctly and receive specialised care. Symptoms include pain through the back of the heel where the Achilles tendon inserts into the heel bone, pain during activity especially running and jumping and the back of the heel may be tender to touch.

Recovery

Severs disease is a self limiting condition that gradually resolves as the patient moves towards skeletal maturity. This usually takes between 6 to 12 months, but may persist for as long as 2 years. With appropriate management, symptoms may resolve in a number of weeks. Patients with Severs disease typically improve gradually over time and full function is restored.
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Arch Pain Causes Symptoms And Treatments

Overview

You arch is the curved, raised area made up of your tarsal and metatarsal bones. It helps distribute some of your body weight off of your heel. It is shaped slightly different for everyone-some have lower or ?flatter? arches than others. This doesn?t always cause pain, but when it does, it can make walking and standing unpleasant and difficult. Generally the muscles and other tissues along the arch and even in the heel ache. The inside of the foot and ankle can also swell uncomfortably. Sometimes arches ?fall? inward from an injury or weakness, flattening out an otherwise normal foot.

Pain In Arch

Causes

There are many causes for a high arch (cavus) foot. In the United States, the most common cause for a high arch foot is a form of muscular dystrophy called hereditary sensorimotor neuropathy. Most people recognize this by the more commonly used name of Charcot Marie Tooth disease (CMT). This is a disease of the muscles and the nerves of the legs, and occasionally of the hands, in which certain muscles weaken while others retain their strength. The condition is transmitted as an autosomal dominant condition. This means that 50% of the offspring will statistically inherit the disorder. This is, however, just a statistic. In some families, all the children develop the condition while in others, none inherit it.

Symptoms

Go to a podiatrist at the first sign of symptoms. Besides pain on the bottom of the foot, additional symptoms may include. Burning sensation in arch. Difficulty standing on tiptoes. Inflammation. More pain after sleeping or resting. Redness. Heat. Localized pain in the ball of the foot. Sharp or shooting pain in the toes. Pain that increases when toes are flexed. Tingling or numbness in the toes. Aching. Pain that increases when walking barefoot. Pain that increases when walking on hard surfaces. Pain the increases when standing (putting weight on your feet) or moving around and decreases when immobile. Skin Lesions. It?s important to get a proper diagnosis and treatment plan. Let?s go over the possible causes of the pain.

Diagnosis

A patient is asked to step with full body weight on the symptomatic foot, keeping the unaffected foot off the ground. The patient is then instructed to "raise up on the tip toes" of the affected foot. If the posterior tibial tendon has been attenuated or ruptured, the patient will be unable to lift the heel off the floor and rise onto the toes. In less severe cases, the patient will be able to rise on the toes, but the heel will not be noted to invert as it normally does when we rise onto the toes. X-rays can be helpful but are not diagnostic of the adult acquired flatfoot. Both feet, the symptomatic and asymptomatic - will demonstrate a flatfoot deformity on x-ray. Careful observation may show a greater severity of deformity on the affected side.

Non Surgical Treatment

One of the most successful, and practical treatments recommended by podiatrists are orthotic devices, sometimes referred to as arch supports. Orthotics take various forms and are constructed of various materials, usually best recommended by your doctor to address the severity of your problem. All orthotic devices serve to improve foot function and minimize stress forces that could ultimately arch pain.

Arch Pain

Surgical Treatment

Although most patients with plantar fasciitis respond to non- surgical treatment, a small percentage of patients may require surgery. If, after several months of non-surgical treatment, you continue to have heel pain, surgery will be considered. Your foot and ankle surgeon will discuss the surgical options with you and determine which approach would be most beneficial. No matter what kind of treatment you undergo for plantar fasciitis, the underlying causes that led to this condition may remain. Therefore, you will need to continue with preventive measures. Wearing supportive shoes, stretching, and using custom orthotic devices are the mainstays of long-term treatment for plantar fasciitis.

Stretching Exercises

Plantar Fasciitis stretches can be incorporated into a comprehensive treatment regime which may involve: ice, heel wedge support, taping, massage, muscle strengthening, orthotic inserts for shoes, topical anti inflammatory gel or oral medication and/or corticosteroid injections. If you suspect you may have Plantar Fasciitis seek accurate diagnosis and treatment from a health professional to ensure a correct diagnosis and reduce the likelihood of developing chronic foot pain. Treatment interventions may be provided by your Physical Therapist, Podiatrist and/or doctor.
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Achilles Tendon Rupture Recovery

Overview Achilles Tendonitis An Achilles tendon injury can affect both professional and amateur athletes. The Achilles tendon is one of the longer tendons in your body, stretching from the bones of your heel to your calf muscles. You can feel it, a springy band of tissue at the back of your ankle and above your heel. It allows you to extend your foot and point your toes to the floor. Unfortunately, it's a commonly injured tendon. Many Achilles tendon injuries are caused by tendinitis, in which the tendon becomes swollen and painful. In a severe Achilles tendon injury, too much force on the tendon can cause it to tear partially or rupture completely. Causes The most common cause of a ruptured Achilles' tendon is when too much stress is placed through the tendon, particularly when pushing off with the foot. This may happen when playing sports such as football, basketball or tennis where the foot is dorsiflexed or pushed into an upward position during a fall. If the Achilles' tendon is weak, it is prone to rupture. Various factors can cause weakness, including corticosteroid medication and injections, certain diseases caused by hormone imbalance and tendonitis. Old age can also increase the risk of Achilles' tendon rupture. Symptoms Although it's possible to have no signs or symptoms with an Achilles tendon rupture, most people experience pain, possibly severe, and swelling near your heel, an inability to bend your foot downward or "push off" the injured leg when you walk, an inability to stand on your toes on the injured leg, a popping or snapping sound when the injury occurs. Seek medical advice immediately if you feel a pop or snap in your heel, especially if you can't walk properly afterward. Diagnosis A detailed history, and examination by an appropriately qualified health professional, will allow a diagnosis to be made. An ultrasound or MRI scan can confirm the diagnosis. Other causes of symptoms in the area, such as those referred from the lumbar spine and local infection, should be excluded. Non Surgical Treatment Treatment of a ruptured Achilles tendon is usually conservative (non-operative) in a Controlled Motion Ankle (CAM) Boot or it may require surgery. The current consensus based on research is to treat them conservatively since the functional outcome and chance of re-rupture is similar (7% to 15%) using both approaches but surgical intervention has a higher risk of infection. Achilles tendon surgery is usually considered if your Achilles has re-ruptured or there is delay of two weeks between the rupture and the diagnosis and commencement of conservative bracing and treatment. Achilles Tendon Surgical Treatment Operative treatment involves a 6cm incision along the inner side of the tendon. The torn ends are then strongly stitched together with the correct tension. After the operation a below knee half cast is applied for 2 weeks. At 2 weeks a brace will be applied that will allow you to move the foot and fully weight-bear for a further 6 weeks. After this you will need physiotherapy. Surgery carries the general risks of any operation but the risk of re-rupture is greatly reduced to 2%. The best form of treatment is controversial with good results being obtained by both methods but surgery is generally recommended for patients under 60 years of age who are fit and active with an intra-substance tear. Prevention You can help to reduce your risk of an injury to your Achilles tendon by doing the following. When you start a new exercise regime, gradually increase the intensity and the length of time you spend being active. Warm up your muscles before you exercise and cool them down after you have finished. The benefit of stretching before or after exercise is unproven. However, it may help to stretch your calf muscles, which will help to lengthen your Achilles tendon, before you exercise. Wear appropriate and well-fitting shoes when you exercise.

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